The history of solar batteries begins from the 19th century. Their production technology was surprisingly faster. The reason was the ongoing study of the transformation of solar energy into electricity. In 1839 Antoine-Cesar Becker presented the chemical batteries he created, producing electricity under the influence of the sun. The first solar battery had only 1% efficiency. That is to say, only one percent of sunlight turns into electricity. In 1873, Smith discovered how much selenium sensitivity is to the light, and in 1877 Adams and Day pointed out that selenium produces electric current under the influence of light.
In 1880 Charles Fries used gold molded selenium to produce the first solar cell that also had 1% efficiency. Fries considered his solar elements revolutionary. He appreciated the possibility of using solar energy as a means of diversifying energy supply, predicting that solar cells will soon replace existing power plants. In 1905 Albert Einstein interpreted photovoltaic effects, hoping to build higher solar cells, but progress was insignificant. In the mid-20th century, researchers in the field of diodes and transistors were given the necessary knowledge. In 1954 Gordon Pirson, Darryl Chapin, and Cal Fuller created a silicon solar cell with 4% efficiency. Later cell effectiveness increased to 15%. Solar panels were first used in rural areas and remote towns as a power source, where they have been successfully used for many years. At present, the solar cells are still unable to meet the energy requirements, but they have become the main source of energy for providing Earth’s artificial satellites.
The current fuel systems and batteries are too heavy. Solar cells have a higher energy-intensity relationship than all other traditional energy sources and are economically more efficient. Though the number of large-scale energy photovoltaic systems is small. The vast majority of efforts are aimed at supplying electricity to distant and hard-to-reach areas. The annual installed capacity of solar power stations is approximately 50 megawatts. However, solar panels provide only 1% of the current electricity. Solar energy supporters claim that the amount of solar radiation that can reach the Earth’s surface every year can easily meet energy needs several times.